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Glossary

TermDescription
AbstinenceDays count after last ejaculation.
Aneuploid EmbryoAn embryo with abnormal genetic make up.
Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH)AMH is considered to be one of the most accurate tests to evaluate ovarian reserve. Elevated level of AMH is associated with increased numbers of mature eggs, embryos and ultimately a higher clinical pregnancy rate.
Anti Sperm Antibodies (ASA)Antibodies that impair sperm function.
Antral Follicle Count (AFC)The number of follicles measuring 2-10 mm in diameter as assessed by transvaginal ultrasound scan. The number of antral follicles indicates the number of eggs available and the likely response to hormonal stimulation medications.
Artificial Oocyte ActivationThe purpose of artificial oocyte activation is to enhance the chances of fertilisation by artificially increasing the calcium levels in the oocyte (egg). 
Assisted HatchingA procedure to facilitate an embryo hatching from its protective shell by creating a small opening in its zona to help implantation in the uterus.
Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART)Medical methods used to assist in achieving pregnancy, including clinical and biological interventions.
AzoospermiaNo sperm in the ejaculate.
BlastocystDay 5 embryo.
CleavageThe first stage of embryo development after fertilisation.
Day 3 EmbryosDay 3 embryos (referring to embryo culture), usually 8 cells. 
DegenerationUnexpected death of embryo cells / gametes after ICSI or thawing.
Ectopic PregnancyA pregnancy where the embryo implants outside the uterus, frequently in the fallopian tubes but can also occur in the abdomen, ovary or cervix.
Egg DonationThe process of collecting eggs from one woman for use by another.
Egg FreezingA method of fertility preservation involving retrieving eggs and freezing them for use at a later date to try to achieve a pregnancy.
Egg RetrievalEggs are retrieved using a thin ultrasound-guided needle during a short procedure under sedation.
Embryo BiopsyObtaining cells from an embryo for genetic testing.
EmbryoGlueSpecial culture media to enhance implantation.
Embryo Transfer (ET)The last step in the process of assisted reproduction in which embryos are placed into the uterus with the intent to establish a pregnancy.
Euploid EmbryoAn embryo with normal DNA after genetic testing. 
Family BalancingThe use of IVF for sex selection in order to choose the number of male or female offspring in a family.
FertilisationThe process of sperm and eggs fusion to form a zygote.
Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)A hormone associated with reproduction, responsible for the production of eggs in women and sperm in men.
Frozen Embryo Transfer (FET)Embryos frozen after a previous IVF or ICSI treatment cycle are thawed and replaced back into the patient's uterus.
Gamete / Embryo FreezingA procedure that involves use of cryopreservation in order to maintain gametes and embryos in their original state while in storage for future use.
Gamete / Embryo ThawingA procedure that involves thawing in order to recover previously frozen gametes/embryos.
Gene Therapy A type of genetic engineering in which DNA is inserted, deleted, modified or replaced in the genome of an embryo.
Genetic EditingA type of genetic engineering in which DNA is inserted, deleted, modified, or replaced in the genome of an egg or a sperm.
GonadotropinsA type of fertility drug that stimulates ovulation and egg development.
Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (hCG)A hormone produced in early pregnancy. 'Trigger' injections of hCG are given in IVF treatment at the point when the ovarian follicles have reached the optimum diameter.
Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)A complex of genes on chromosome 6 in humans which encode cell-surface proteins responsible for regulating the immune system.
HyCoSy / HyFoSyUltrasound-based techniques for examining tubal patency.
Hysterosalpingogram (HSG)An imaging procedure to check the inside of the uterus and the fallopian tube for any abnormalities or damage.
HysteroscopyA thin, lighted, flexible tube called a hysteroscope is inserted into the vagina to examine the cervix and inside of the uterus. Hysteroscopy can be a part of the diagnosis process or an operative procedure.
Intracytoplasmic Morphologically Selected Sperm (IMSI)A powerful microscope is used to select which sperm to inject via ICSI.
Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)A single sperm is injected into each of the retrieved eggs using a precision needle.
Intrauterine Insemination (IUI)A fertility treatment which involves inserting sperm directly into the patient's uterus.
In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF)The process in which eggs are retrieved from a female patient and fertilised by sperm in a laboratory.
In Vitro Maturation (IVM)A procedure in which eggs are collected and matured outside the body under special conditions, using special media in the IVF laboratory.
KaryotypingA karyotype evaluates a person's chromosomes including their structure, number, and arrangement
Laser Assisted Hatching (LAH)Before embryo transfer, a laser is used to create a small hole in the zona pellucida to assist the embryo to 'hatch' with the aim to improve the chances of implantation
Left Over Embryos (LOE)Left over / extra embryos after embryo transfer for freezing or observation.
Live Birth Rate (LBR)The percentage of IVF cycles which result in a live birth.
Luteinising Hormone (LH)A hormone produced by the pituitary gland which is one of the main hormones controlling the reproductive system.
Maturation ArrestThe failure of embryos to continue development.
Mature EggsEggs suitable for fertilisation.
Micro-Surgical Testicular Sperm Extraction (Micro-TESE)A surgical procedure involving the use of a surgical microscope for extracting sperm directly from the testis.
Monosomies / TrisomiesExamples of genetic abnormalities after PGT referring to increased or decreased copies of DNA.
Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS)A complication of fertility treatment causing swelling of the ovaries.
Ovarian Tissue CryopreservationA technique used for ovarian tissue cryopreservation to keep the tissues and organs in low temperature for future use.
Ovulation InductionThe stimulation of ovulation by use of medication.
Ovum Pick Up (OPU)Egg retrieval through follicular puncture under ultrasound guidance.
Percutaneous Epididymal Sperm Aspiration (PESA)The surgical collection of sperm through a fine needle directly from the epididymis.
PGT-AA pre-implantation genetic test for aneuploidies.
PGT-MA pre-implantation genetic test for monogenic (single cell) disorders.
PGT-SRA pre-implantation genetic test for inherited chromosomal structural rearrangements.
Polar Body BiopsyAn assisted reproductive technique which involves the removal of polar body from an egg to assess its chromosomal status.
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)A common endocrine disorder which can potentially affect female fertility.
PoolingThe collecting and freezing of eggs or embryos from multiple cycles of stimulation.
Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD)The technique of testing cells from an embryo created through IVF to diagnose genetic disease.
Pre-implantation Genetic Testing (PGT)The technique of testing cells from an embryo created through IVF for chromosomal abnormalities, not specific genetic diagnoses.
Receiving oocytes from the partner (ROPA)A treatment for female same sex couples - one partner donates her eggs and the other carries the child, so that both partners are physically involved in the pregnancy.
Recurrent Pregnancy Loss (RPL)Recurrent pregnancy loss is defined as having three or more miscarriages within the first trimester.
Repeated Implantation Failure (RIF)The failure of good quality embryos to implant after multiple cycles of IVF.
Semen AnalysisThe microscopic examination of the shape, number, and movement of sperm to assess male fertility.
Sex SelectionChoosing the sex of an embryo through IVF with pre-implantation genetic testing.
Sperm DNA FragmentationThis refers to damage in the genetic material of the sperm affecting fertility.
Sperm DonationThe donation of sperm by a man for use in fertility treatment by a woman who is not his sexual partner.
Sperm FreezingThe cooling of spermatozoa cells under liquid nitrogen for future use.
Sperm WashSperm preparation for IUI or IVF 
Stem Cell TherapyThe use of stem cells for ovarian regeneration, egg generation and restoring endometrial lining in females and testicular regeneration and sperm regeneration in males.
Testicular Sperm Aspiration (TESA)The surgical collection of sperm through a fine needle directly from the testis.
Testicular Sperm Extraction (TESE)The surgical collection of sperm by making a small incision into the testis and examining the tubules for the presence of sperm.
Varicocele RepairA varicocele is an enlargement of the veins within the scrotum. A repair is a surgical procedure to remove the varicocele and restore normal blood flow.
VitrificationThe rapid cooling of embryos / eggs.
WarmingThe defrosting / thawing of frozen eggs or embryos for uterine transfer 
ZygoteA fertilised egg cell resulting from the fusion of male and female gametes.

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