|Days count after last ejaculation.
|An embryo with abnormal genetic make up.
|Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH)
|AMH is considered to be one of the most accurate tests to evaluate ovarian reserve. Elevated level of AMH is associated with increased numbers of mature eggs, embryos and ultimately a higher clinical pregnancy rate.
|Anti Sperm Antibodies (ASA)
|Antibodies that impair sperm function.
|Antral Follicle Count (AFC)
|The number of follicles measuring 2-10 mm in diameter as assessed by transvaginal ultrasound scan. The number of antral follicles indicates the number of eggs available and the likely response to hormonal stimulation medications.
|Artificial Oocyte Activation
|The purpose of artificial oocyte activation is to enhance the chances of fertilisation by artificially increasing the calcium levels in the oocyte (egg).
|A procedure to facilitate an embryo hatching from its protective shell by creating a small opening in its zona to help implantation in the uterus.
|Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART)
|Medical methods used to assist in achieving pregnancy, including clinical and biological interventions.
|No sperm in the ejaculate.
|Day 5 embryo.
|The first stage of embryo development after fertilisation.
|Day 3 Embryos
|Day 3 embryos (referring to embryo culture), usually 8 cells.
|Unexpected death of embryo cells / gametes after ICSI or thawing.
|A pregnancy where the embryo implants outside the uterus, frequently in the fallopian tubes but can also occur in the abdomen, ovary or cervix.
|The process of collecting eggs from one woman for use by another.
|A method of fertility preservation involving retrieving eggs and freezing them for use at a later date to try to achieve a pregnancy.
|Eggs are retrieved using a thin ultrasound-guided needle during a short procedure under sedation.
|Obtaining cells from an embryo for genetic testing.
|Special culture media to enhance implantation.
|Embryo Transfer (ET)
|The last step in the process of assisted reproduction in which embryos are placed into the uterus with the intent to establish a pregnancy.
|An embryo with normal DNA after genetic testing.
|The use of IVF for sex selection in order to choose the number of male or female offspring in a family.
|The process of sperm and eggs fusion to form a zygote.
|Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
|A hormone associated with reproduction, responsible for the production of eggs in women and sperm in men.
|Frozen Embryo Transfer (FET)
|Embryos frozen after a previous IVF or ICSI treatment cycle are thawed and replaced back into the patient's uterus.
|Gamete / Embryo Freezing
|A procedure that involves use of cryopreservation in order to maintain gametes and embryos in their original state while in storage for future use.
|Gamete / Embryo Thawing
|A procedure that involves thawing in order to recover previously frozen gametes/embryos.
|A type of genetic engineering in which DNA is inserted, deleted, modified or replaced in the genome of an embryo.
|A type of genetic engineering in which DNA is inserted, deleted, modified, or replaced in the genome of an egg or a sperm.
|A type of fertility drug that stimulates ovulation and egg development.
|Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (hCG)
|A hormone produced in early pregnancy. 'Trigger' injections of hCG are given in IVF treatment at the point when the ovarian follicles have reached the optimum diameter.
|Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)
|A complex of genes on chromosome 6 in humans which encode cell-surface proteins responsible for regulating the immune system.
|HyCoSy / HyFoSy
|Ultrasound-based techniques for examining tubal patency.
|An imaging procedure to check the inside of the uterus and the fallopian tube for any abnormalities or damage.
|A thin, lighted, flexible tube called a hysteroscope is inserted into the vagina to examine the cervix and inside of the uterus. Hysteroscopy can be a part of the diagnosis process or an operative procedure.
|Intracytoplasmic Morphologically Selected Sperm (IMSI)
|A powerful microscope is used to select which sperm to inject via ICSI.
|Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)
|A single sperm is injected into each of the retrieved eggs using a precision needle.
|Intrauterine Insemination (IUI)
|A fertility treatment which involves inserting sperm directly into the patient's uterus.
|In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF)
|The process in which eggs are retrieved from a female patient and fertilised by sperm in a laboratory.
|In Vitro Maturation (IVM)
|A procedure in which eggs are collected and matured outside the body under special conditions, using special media in the IVF laboratory.
|A karyotype evaluates a person's chromosomes including their structure, number, and arrangement
|Laser Assisted Hatching (LAH)
|Before embryo transfer, a laser is used to create a small hole in the zona pellucida to assist the embryo to 'hatch' with the aim to improve the chances of implantation
|Left Over Embryos (LOE)
|Left over / extra embryos after embryo transfer for freezing or observation.
|Live Birth Rate (LBR)
|The percentage of IVF cycles which result in a live birth.
|Luteinising Hormone (LH)
|A hormone produced by the pituitary gland which is one of the main hormones controlling the reproductive system.
|The failure of embryos to continue development.
|Eggs suitable for fertilisation.
|Micro-Surgical Testicular Sperm Extraction (Micro-TESE)
|A surgical procedure involving the use of a surgical microscope for extracting sperm directly from the testis.
|Monosomies / Trisomies
|Examples of genetic abnormalities after PGT referring to increased or decreased copies of DNA.
|Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS)
|A complication of fertility treatment causing swelling of the ovaries.
|Ovarian Tissue Cryopreservation
|A technique used for ovarian tissue cryopreservation to keep the tissues and organs in low temperature for future use.
|The stimulation of ovulation by use of medication.
|Ovum Pick Up (OPU)
|Egg retrieval through follicular puncture under ultrasound guidance.
|Percutaneous Epididymal Sperm Aspiration (PESA)
|The surgical collection of sperm through a fine needle directly from the epididymis.
|A pre-implantation genetic test for aneuploidies.
|A pre-implantation genetic test for monogenic (single cell) disorders.
|A pre-implantation genetic test for inherited chromosomal structural rearrangements.
|Polar Body Biopsy
|An assisted reproductive technique which involves the removal of polar body from an egg to assess its chromosomal status.
|Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)
|A common endocrine disorder which can potentially affect female fertility.
|The collecting and freezing of eggs or embryos from multiple cycles of stimulation.
|Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD)
|The technique of testing cells from an embryo created through IVF to diagnose genetic disease.
|Pre-implantation Genetic Testing (PGT)
|The technique of testing cells from an embryo created through IVF for chromosomal abnormalities, not specific genetic diagnoses.
|Receiving oocytes from the partner (ROPA)
|A treatment for female same sex couples - one partner donates her eggs and the other carries the child, so that both partners are physically involved in the pregnancy.
|Recurrent Pregnancy Loss (RPL)
|Recurrent pregnancy loss is defined as having three or more miscarriages within the first trimester.
|Repeated Implantation Failure (RIF)
|The failure of good quality embryos to implant after multiple cycles of IVF.
|The microscopic examination of the shape, number, and movement of sperm to assess male fertility.
|Choosing the sex of an embryo through IVF with pre-implantation genetic testing.
|Sperm DNA Fragmentation
|This refers to damage in the genetic material of the sperm affecting fertility.
|The donation of sperm by a man for use in fertility treatment by a woman who is not his sexual partner.
|The cooling of spermatozoa cells under liquid nitrogen for future use.
|Sperm preparation for IUI or IVF
|Stem Cell Therapy
|The use of stem cells for ovarian regeneration, egg generation and restoring endometrial lining in females and testicular regeneration and sperm regeneration in males.
|Testicular Sperm Aspiration (TESA)
|The surgical collection of sperm through a fine needle directly from the testis.
|Testicular Sperm Extraction (TESE)
|The surgical collection of sperm by making a small incision into the testis and examining the tubules for the presence of sperm.
|A varicocele is an enlargement of the veins within the scrotum. A repair is a surgical procedure to remove the varicocele and restore normal blood flow.
|The rapid cooling of embryos / eggs.
|The defrosting / thawing of frozen eggs or embryos for uterine transfer
|A fertilised egg cell resulting from the fusion of male and female gametes.